All of your questions are answered here every day. You should probably read a little here. However, here are the answers again:
1. What is the heel-to-toe technique? (please excuse if I'm butchering the terminology)
Heel-toe is using one foot to operate two pedals. It can be done many different ways depending on your pedals and your feet. I like to straddle the brake and accelerator with the sides of my foot.
A lot of people like to use their heel on the accelerator and toe on the brake, but my foot doesn't twist in that direction. For cars whose accelerator and brake are far apart, I use my heel on the brake and toe on the accelerator.
It is done any time you might want to operate all three pedals at once. Common scenarios include racing, where you need to brake aggressively as you enter a turn while simultaneously rev-matching a shift, and steep hill launches.
2. What are some no-no's for breaking in a new (2011-2012) manual transmission?
If you smell a severe clutch burning smell (smells just like brakes burning), give it a rest. Other than that, enjoy it.
2.a I heard from someone that you have to drive the first thousand miles without revving over 3000 RPM's. Is this true and why?
That has nothing to do with manual transmissions, that's just that person's strategy for breaking in the engine. There are a variety of engine break-in strategies, each with some decent reasoning behind them. As far as I can tell it really doesn't matter, although I suspect it mattered 50 years ago when engines weren't built as well as they are now.
3. What is the best way to approach a stoplight?
3.a I've experimented with putting the car in neutral and coasting up to the light, downshifting from 5 to 4th to 3rd etc. and lastly, holding in the clutch petal and braking when I get near the light. I know neutral is unsafe as the car is out of gear, but is it necessary to downshift to approach a light or stopsign instead of using the clutch pedal only, and which saves more gas?
Neutral coasting is not unsafe for a decent driver. If it is unsafe for you, there is a fundamental problem with your driving and if you MUST drive you should be in an automatic.
Coasting (neutral or declutched, either way) may or may not save fuel, depending on how willingly your car's computer will engage DFCO (Deceleration Fuel Cut Off).
You should do whatever makes you comfortable. Downshifting a gear at a time is fine. Staying in a gear until you are forced to declutch/shift is fine. Neutral or declutched coasting is fine.
4. Does stalling the car hurt it and how?
4.a Does popping the clutch hurt the car and how?
Yes. It puts huge amounts of shock force through your entire drivetrain.
4.b How does shifting without the clutch hurt the car?
Done inaccurately, it forces your transmission's synchronizers to do the work that the clutch or you should have done. They aren't meant for that job and will wear out very quickly. Done accurately, which takes practice and skill, it ought to be ok, although it's more appropriately done on unsynchronized transmissions (as found in large commercial trucks).
5. What kind of driving can prolong the transmission/ what really tears it up?
If you want to pick nits, you can double-clutch every shift perfectly and practice perfect launching...however, the transmission is designed to last as long as the rest of the car for people who do NOT go to all that effort. What tears it up is hard abuse, like someone who wishes he was racing would do. No-lift shifting, clutch popping, shoving it into gear too fast for the synchronizer, etc.
6. What is the double-clutching method?
It is when you shift to neutral, engage the clutch, rev-match, and then shift to your gear. It does the work that the synchronizer would normally do. It is one of the most common things we discuss here, so feel free to read up on it in more detail.
What do you drive now? You imply that you have a new car.
1980 Buick LeSabre 4.1L 5MT
Put your car in your sig!
Learn to launch/FAQs/lugging/misused terms: meta-sig
Humans have rear-biased AWD. Cows have 4WD